Articles on the effects of Ecstasy on the memory

Does Ecstasy Impair Memory?  An introduction to Ecstasy and its effect on the brain

Ecstasy and Memory  Facts, suspicions and unknowns about Ecstasy and memory

Ecstasy Neurotoxicity  Is Ecstasy "neurotoxic"?

Protecting Yourself from Ecstasy  Tips on how to protect yourself from the pitfalls of Ecstasy use.

Ecstasy Memory

according to the latest research: FACT: Ecstasy use appears to impair memory Specifically: immediate & delayed verbal memory (remembering what someone has just told you), delayed visual recall (the ability to remember images), and short term memory (also known as "working memory"). Overall, Ecstasy users find it more difficult to recall and memorize information than non-E users. These effects have been detected days, weeks, and months afterwards in both light (20 pills in a lifetime), moderate (20-100 pills) and heavy (100+) users.


Ecstasy Neurotoxicity

"Neurotoxicity" is a term used frequently in most studies and reports on Ecstasy. Any substance which makes permanent or temporary changes to the central nervous system, and the brain in particular, is deemed "neurotoxic". Note the word "temporary". Neurotoxic does not automatically imply permanent changes. Nor does it necessarily mean "damage" or adverse effects for the human or animal experiencing it. Neurotoxicity is suspected to be at the root of Ecstasy's memory bending effects, specifically the changes in the brain's serotonin (or '5-HT') system.


Ecstasy Protection

We recommend that you do not use Ecstasy. Visit our Ecstasy effects page to learn why. But if you are in the company of individuals using Ecstasy or plan to use yourself, be at least aware of these safety precautions so that your risk of becoming a statistic is lessened. Again, the best choice is not using and avoidance of those who do. use sparingly only take it occasionally, with lengthy gaps (two or three months at least) watch the dosage Never take more than two, less if you have a small build. The more MDMA you take, the more likely you are to suffer from neurotoxic effects and memory impairment.


Ecstasy Conclusions

FACT: It is undeniable that if you take Ecstasy, you are risking memory impairment. While the degree of memory impairment, so far measured, is still within limits considered "normal", there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that even moderate use messes with your head. Whether it does so temporarily or permanently is yet unknown. There will be more, better-designed studies over the next few years that will help you understand the issues clearly. For now, refer to the original studies quoted if you can. Use reputable sources on the Internet to find out facts. You can also bookmark this section, as we will keep it updated with any new information or studies.


Ecstasy Studies

There have been over 100 scientific studies examining the effects and side-effects of Ecstasy. Fifteen in particular have studied the effects of MDMA on human memory performance. However, not all studies are equally well-designed, especially when attempting to measure something as insubstantial and as fluctuating as memory performance. So many factors can influence the results - age, sex, education, intelligence, mood, lifestyle, fitness, sleeping pattern, diet, alcohol, drug use, even time of day.


Ecstasy and Memory Study 01

"Impaired cognitive performance in drug free users of recreational ecstasy (MDMA)" Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Daumann J, Tuchtenhagen F, Pelz S, Becker S, Kunert H-J, Fimm B, Sass H (2000) J Neurol Neurosurg psychiatry 68: 179-725 read the entire study: pdf | html the subjects Three groups. Matched for age, sex, and education.


Ecstasy and Memory Study 02

"Reduced in vivo binding to the serotonin transporter in the cerebral cortex of MDMA ("ecstasy") users." Semple DM, Ebmeier KP, Glabus MF, O'Carroll RE, Johnstone EC (1999) Br J Psychiatry 175: 63-6 read the entire study here the subjects Ten male users between 18 - 35 with an average lifetime consumption of 672 Ecstasy pills and a minimum of 50, abstinent from E for an average of 18 days. Matched to 10 control subjects, of the same age, sex, education, and drug use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and amphetamines) bar ecstasy.


Ecstasy and Memory Links

related sites all MDMA studies to date excellent online resource our ecstasy guide more witty and helpful info ecstasy.org Nicholas Saunders' Ecstasy site


Ecstasy and Memory Sources

primary sources Semple DM, Ebmeier KP, Glabus MF, O'Carroll RE, Johnstone EC (1999) "Reduced in vivo binding to the serotonin transporter in the cerebral cortex of MDMA ("ecstasy") users." Br J Psychiatry 175: 63-6 - online version